Friday, July 1, 2016

Irregular Verb Group 4: T-T-T

Here goes list four!  Although this verb group is big, this is the easiest list because all you have to do is memorize one word. As I already wrote, remember to study one group at time. Only move on to the next when you have memorized it superbly!


Note: These verbs are "weak" irregular verbs because they end in 't', which is close to the regular ending ('d').


Irregular Verb Group 4: T-T-T

  1. bet bet bet
  2. bid bid bid
  3. broadcast broadcast broadcast
  4. burst burst burst
  5. cost cost cost
  6. cut cut cut
  7. hit hit hit
  8. hurt hurt hurt
  9. let let let
  10. put put put
  11. quit quit quit
  12. set set set
  13. shut shut shut
  14. split split split
  15. spread spread spread 

Tuesday, June 28, 2016

Irregular Verb Group 3: EEP/EAP-EPT-EPT

Here goes list three!  Scroll down for previous irregular verb groups. Remember to study one group at time. Only move on to the next when you have memorized it superbly!  This list is a long one...

*Note: British speakers usually uses these irregular verbs, while Americans usually use the regular form.For example:
"Yesterday I burned my pancake!" (American)"Yesterday I burnt my fish and chips!" (Brit) 


These verbs are "weak" irregular verbs because they end in 't', which is close to the regular ending ('d').


Irregular Verb Group 3: EEP/EAP-EPT-EPT

1. creep-crept-crept
2. leap-lept-lept
3. keep-kept-kept
4. sleep-slept-slept
5. sweep-swept-swept
6. weep-wept-wept

Monday, June 27, 2016

Irregular Verb Group 2: I-A-U

So here's Irregular Verbs Group 2.  As I already posted in Irregular Verb Group 1, it's best to learn English's 250 irregular verbs by groups, similar sounds and patterns. Our brains learn best when we can perceive a pattern.

*Note: These verbs are what linguists call "strong" verbs, which means they don't end in 't', for example "I burnt my toast." 


Group 2: I-A-U

BEGIN-BEGAN-BEGUN
DRINK-DRANK-DRUNK
RING-RANG-RUNG
SING-SANG-SUNG
SINK-SANK-SUNK
SWIM-SWAM-SWUM

*Be careful not to make the mistake that many of my students have made:


INCORRECT: bring-brang-brung
CORRECT: bring-brought-brought

Wednesday, June 22, 2016

Irregular Verb Group 1: A/OUGHT

Irregular verbs are one of English's challenges for students. There are about 250 irregular verbs that are still used today-400 in total but the rest are obsolete. The best way to learn is by grouping them together according to their sounds (or phonetic similarities).

Group 1: A/OUGHT

1. BRING-BROUGHT-BROUGHT
2. BUY-BOUGHT-BOUGHT
3. CATCH-CAUGHT-CAUGHT
4. FIGHT-FOUGHT-FOUGHT
5. SEEK-SOUGHT-SOUGHT
6. TEACH-TAUGHT-TAUGHT

Look out for the next Group 2 Irregular Verbs! And if you like this post...then share it!

Tuesday, June 21, 2016

AFFECT vs. EFFECT

These two words are easily confused by native speakers of English, as well as ESL (English as a Second Language) speakers.

Both of these words can be either verbs or nouns, which makes distinguishing them a bit tricky. First let's take a look at affect.

AFFECT 

Usually affect is used as a verb; its meaning is to influence or make something different. It is used with a direct object unless it's used in the passive voice. In that situation we use the preposition "by".

Ex. The pollen in the spring affects my allergies severely. (active voice-direct object)
Ex. The stock market was affected by the economic downturn. (passive voice-used with by)

Affect can also be used as a noun, but only in regards to psychology. It describes a symptom.

Ex. Since the onset of his depression, his affect has been lethargic. 

EFFECT

Effect is usually used as a noun describing the result or impact of one thing on another. It takes on the preposition "of" and "on".

Ex. The effect of pollen on his allergies is severe during the spring.
Ex. The effect of the economic downturn on the economy is clear.

Effect can also be used as a verb, but it's less common than its usage as a noun. It means to realize or cause something to happen.

Ex. President Obama effected change by passing new health care policy.

Is that clear? If you happen to have any doubts, leave your questions below!

Tuesday, May 24, 2016

What's the difference between HOW MUCH & MANY?


HOW MUCH is for NON-COUNTABLE Nouns.

How much is always followed by a non-countable noun.  What's that?...you may ask. Well, it's a noun that can't be counted.  For example, can you count the air?  Can you count water?  Nope! These are non-countable nouns.

Remember: Non-countable nouns never take on an 's' at the end.

Ex.
airs
waters
laughters
homeworks
moneys

Ex.
How much money do you have?
How much time will you need to finish?
I don't have much water.  Can I have some of yours?
Lisbon does not have much public transportation.
How much fruit is left?


HOW MANY is for COUNTABLE Nouns.


Many is used for countable nouns, or nouns that you count. Things like chairs, apples, pencils and people can all be counted.  But remember, countable nouns don't have to be objects.  A person can have 10 ideas or 1 idea, right? 


So another way of knowing is that if you can add an 's' to the word, it's countable. 

Ex. 
ideas
cars
projects
assignments
pencils

*People is an exception. We don't say peoples. We would say 10 people or 10 persons. The word peoples is actually a word, but it is used to describe a group or race of people but only in advanced English. 

Ex.
How many people for dinner tonight?
How many chairs are there in the classroom?
I don't have many students today because they are sick.
She doesn't have many ideas about the project. 
How many assignments do we have this week?



Saturday, May 14, 2016

GHOTI=FISH? Pronunciation in English is crazy!

So how in the world could GHOTI be pronounced FISH in English?

Well let's take a look at GH.  In English this sound used to be represented as X, coming from Gaelic.  For example, in all these words, the GH sound is an F sound:

laugh
cough
rough
tough

The second sound, O, in English, is at times pronounced as an I.  This is the only example I can think of in English where an O is  pronounced as an I.  

women

Now let's take a look at TI. This sound is like SH in English, and there are many examples of this because English has a ton of words ending in TION:

transportation
cautious
occupation

So to summarize:

GH (F) O (I) TI (SH)


Now we can see that English is NOT a phonetic language (a language in which letters represent the same sounds every time.)